Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2387 (2017) Security Council Extends Mandate, Increases Troop Levels of Stabilization Mission in Central African Republic

The Security Council this morning extended the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) until 15 November 2018, increasing its troop level to provide greater capabilities in protecting civilians and other mandated tasks.

Unanimously adopting resolution 2387 (2017) the Council decided to increase the Mission's troop limit by 900 military personnel, resulting in an authorized troop ceiling of 11,650 military personnel, including 480 military observers and military staff officers, 2,080 police personnel and 108 corrections officers.

The Secretary General's latest report on the Central African Republic (document S/2017/865) found that, due to the resurgence of violence over a wide area of the country, the Mission's resources were overstretched. It recommended augmenting capabilities in protection while also focusing on the core task of facilitating the political process.

Through today's text, the Council requested the Secretary-General to maximize operational capacity by enhancing MINUSCA's personnel, mobility and data gathering capabilities. Commending the commitment of troop- and police contributing countries to carry out the mandate in a challenging environment, it highlighted, however, the adverse effects of lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment.

The Council requested the Secretary General to ensure that all personnel of the mission be vetted for history of sexual misconduct in their service with the United Nations and to keep the Council informed on the start, agreed deadlines and outcomes of reviews, urging contributing countries to carry out predeployment awareness training and ensure full accountability for violations.

The Council, in addition, renewed its authorization for French forces to use all means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat.

In addition to delineating tasks under the protection of civilians and support to the peace process, the Council, through the text, described in detail a wide range of responsibilities for MINUSCA, from support for the rule of law and for ensuring a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid to support for the extension of state authority and for the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).

On the political front, the Council renewed its support to the Government of President Faustin Archange Touadera, welcoming his efforts to advance dialogue with armed groups and extend State authority. It also affirmed that the roadmap of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic was the main framework for a political solution in the country under national leadership.

Speaking after the vote, several Council members took the floor to welcome adoption of the text. Noting deterioration of the humanitarian situation, they affirmed the Council's full support for the people of the Central African Republic and MINUSCA. Francois Delattre (France) stressed that relapse into the full crisis of 2012 was unthinkable and all resources must be deployed to prevent it. In strengthening MINUSCA, the resolution would enable the Mission to deliver on its civilian protection mandate. It had already demonstrated that it could act robustly to protect vulnerable civilians from armed groups, he said.

He also welcomed the resolution's enhancement of efforts to prevent sexual abuse by peacekeepers. He commented, in addition, that gradual redeployment of the national armed forces trained by the European Union was an important element in the country's reestablishment of State control over its territory. Full support to the President and the African Initiative to reconciliation was also important in that regard.

Also welcoming the resolution's support for African efforts, Amr Abdellatif Aboulatta (Egypt) said that the increase of the size of the MINUSCA would let it face challenges more effectively. As a major contributor to the Mission, he affirmed that triangular cooperation was the best means for increasing the effectiveness of troops. Based on those arrangements, he welcomed progress in fighting sexual abuse. Stressing that deployment of the national armed forces was critical for restoring State authority, he looked forward to the proposals of the Secretary General in that regard. He also called for full resourcing of the Mission.

Michele J. Sison (United States) emphasized that her country considered each Mission carefully in order to ensure it had the right capacity. MINUSCA had a clear mandate with a clear exit strategy and was headed in the right direction. Increasing troop strength was appropriate at this point, but focus on quality as well as quantity was needed. In that regard, she welcomed efforts to meet equipment standards and head on action to deal with accusations of abuse. She stressed that sustainable peace in the country required strengthening of the national security forces.

Petr V. Iliichev (Russian Federation), in addition, urged that the focus be kept on protection of civilians and support to the political process as called for by the resolution, so that peacekeeping efforts were not spread out too thinly. Mobility of forces, he said, was critical both for protection and to allow Bangui to focus on peace and reconciliation. National Forces must be built properly for sustainable peace. Commenting on the issue of sexual abuse by peacekeepers, he said it was not acceptable for a whole contingent to be sent home due to such allegations.

Marcien Aubin Kpatamango (Central African Republic) thanked the Council for its action and said that armed violence continued to hold sway over a large part of his country. By strengthening MINUSCA, the resolution just adopted would assist the Mission in helping the country to face its challenges. The recent uptick in violence, he added, was a reminder that only a long term development strategy could sustainably end instability. However, an effective peacekeeping mission was a critical and present necessity. Our country deserves a better future and it will have one thanks to you, he said.

The meeting began at 10:28 a.m. and ended at 10:51 a.m.

Resolution

The full text of resolution 2387 (2017) reads as follows:

The Security Council,

Recalling its previous resolutions and statements on the Central African Republic (CAR), in particular resolutions 2121 (2013), 2127 (2013), 2134 (2014), 2149 (2014), 2181 (2014), 2196 (2015), 2212 (2015), 2217 (2015), 2262 (2016), 2264 (2016), 2281 (2016), 2301 (2016), 2339 (2017), as well as resolution 2272 (2016), and its Presidential Statements S/PRST/2014/28 of 18 December 2014, S/PRST/2015/17 of 20 October 2015, S/PRST/2016/17 of 16 November 2016, S/PRST/2017/5 of 4 April 2017 and S/PRST/9 of 13 July 2017,

Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the CAR, and recalling the importance of the principles of non-interference, good-neighbourliness and regional cooperation,

Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self defence and defence of the mandate, recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, and recalling, in this regard, its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 of 25 November 2015,

Recalling that the CAR Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect all populations in the CAR in particular from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and, in this regard, recalling the importance of restoring state authority in all parts of the country,

Emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in the CAR should be CAR-owned, including the political process, and should prioritize reconciliation of the Central African people, through an inclusive process that involves men and women of all social, economic, political, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including, those displaced by the crisis,

Expressing concern at the deterioration of the security situation, in particular in the south-eastern part and the north-western parts of the CAR, due to the ongoing clashes between armed groups in their attempts to forcefully gain control of territory and resources and destabilize the country, as well as the lack of capacity of the national security forces, and the persistence of the root causes of the conflict,

Condemning in the strongest terms incitement to ethnic and religious hatred and violence and the multiple violations of international humanitarian law and the widespread human rights violations and abuses, including sexual and gender-based violence, committed notably by both ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, as well as other militia groups, as well as the targeting of civilians from specific communities,

Recalling the submission of the report (document S/2014/928) of the International Commission of Inquiry established by resolution 2127 (2013), noting with concern its finding that the main parties to the conflict, including ex-Seleka, the anti Balaka, and elements from the CAR Armed Forces (FACA) who collaborated with armed groups committed violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses since 1 January 2013, that may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity, including ethnic cleansing by elements of the anti Balaka militia,

Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, provocations and incitement to violence against the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) contingents and other international forces by armed groups or other perpetrators, paying tribute to the personnel of MINUSCA who sacrificed their lives in the service of peace, underlining that attacks targeting peacekeepers may constitute war crimes, reminding all parties of their obligations under international humanitarian law and urging the CAR Authorities to take all possible measures to ensure the arrest and prosecution of perpetrators,

Welcoming in this regard MINUSCA's efforts to protect civilians and to combat armed groups with the success of operation 'BEKPA' in Bambari in February and March 2017, operation 'MARAZE' in Bangassou in August 2017, and operation 'DAMAKONGO' in Bocaranga in October 2017,

Stressing the urgent and imperative need to end impunity in the CAR and to bring to justice perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and of abuses and violations of human rights, welcoming in this regard the progressive operationalization of the Special Criminal Court (SCC) and underlining the need to bolster the other national accountability mechanisms as well as the support for the work of the Independent Expert on human rights in the CAR,

Reiterating the primary responsibility of the national authorities to ensure a conducive environment for the effective and independent investigation, prosecution and adjudication of all cases, also emphasizing the need for the CAR government to ensure institutional preparedness to that end,

Welcoming steps initiated by the Government of the CAR in establishing transitional justice mechanisms to ensure accountability for past crimes and reparation for victims while promoting national reconciliation,

Welcoming the commitment of the Secretary-General to enforce strictly his zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), noting the various measures taken by MINUSCA and troop- and police-contributing countries to combat SEA, which has led to a reduction in reported cases, but still expressing grave concern over numerous allegations of SEA reportedly committed by peacekeepers in the CAR, as well as by non United Nations forces, stressing the urgent need for troop- and police-contributing countries and, as appropriate, MINUSCA, to promptly investigate those allegations in a credible and transparent manner and for those responsible for such criminal offences or misconduct to be held to account, and further stressing the need to prevent such exploitation and abuse and to improve how these allegations are addressed in line with resolution 2272 (2016),

Emphasizing the fact that the current security situation in the CAR provides a conducive environment for transnational criminal activity, such as that involving arms trafficking and the use of mercenaries as well as a potential breeding ground for radical networks,

Expressing grave concern at the threat to peace and security in the CAR arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and the use of such weapons against civilians,

Acknowledging in this respect the important contribution to the peace, stability or security of the CAR, of the Council-mandated sanctions regime renewed by resolution 2339 (2017), including its provisions related to the arms embargo, and its provisions related to individuals or entities designated by the Committee as engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR,

Reiterating that illicit trade, exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds, and wildlife poaching and trafficking continues to threaten the peace and stability of the CAR,

Expressing concern about reported travel by individuals designated pursuant to UNSC resolution 2127 (2013) and noting the critical importance of effective implementation of the sanctions regime, including the key role that neighbouring States, as well as regional and subregional organizations, can play in this regard and encouraging efforts to further enhance cooperation,

Reiterating its serious concern at the dire humanitarian situation in the CAR, the consequences of the deterioration of the security situation on humanitarian access, as well as the violence against humanitarian workers, and emphasizing in particular the current humanitarian needs of the more than 600,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) and nearly 500,000 refugees in neighbouring countries and further expressing concern at the consequences of the flow of refugees on the situation in Chad, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as other countries of the region,

Recalling the responsibility of the CAR Authorities to protect and promote the right to freedom of movement of all people in the CAR, including IDPs, without distinction, their freedom to choose where to reside, and to comply with their right to return to their own country or to leave in order to seek asylum in other States and expressing concern for the plight of civilians trapped in enclaves with limited access to humanitarian assistance,

Recalling the holding of, and local participation in, grass-roots consultations throughout the country between 21 January and 8 March 2015, which enabled thousands of people in the CAR to express their views on the future of their country, and the holding of the Bangui Forum in May 2015, during which the Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction as well as agreements on the principles for disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation , justice and reconciliation, and security sector reform, and on the commitment by armed groups to end the recruitment and use of children and to release all children from their ranks, were adopted,

Recalling the peaceful organization of a constitutional referendum on 13 December 2015 and legislative and presidential elections in December 2015, February and March 2016, as well as the inauguration of the President Faustin Archange Touadera on 30 March 2016,

Recalling the need for an inclusive, gender sensitive and effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process, as well as repatriation in the case of foreign fighters, including children formerly associated with armed forces and groups, while respecting the need to fight against impunity,

Recalling the successful conduct of pre disarmament, demobilization and reintegration activities and Community Violence Reduction programmes which have contributed to reduce the presence of members of armed groups,

Underlining the continued need to support national, and to coordinate international, efforts towards the transformation of the security sector in the CAR and stressing the crucial role of the internal security forces (police and gendarmerie) in the restoration of community security, public safety and the rule of law in the CAR,

Welcoming in this regard the work done by the EU training mission (EUTM) to provide support to reform the FACA into multi ethnic, professional, and representative armed forces, as indicated in the letter of the High Representative of the EU for Foreign and Security policy dated 30 May 2016,

Recalling its resolutions on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including 2286 (2016) and 1894 (2009); its resolutions on Children and Armed Conflict including 2225 (2015) and its resolutions on Women, Peace and Security including 2106 (2013) and 2242 (2015), and calling upon all parties in the CAR to engage with the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict and the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict,

Expressing its concern that children have continued to be victims of abuses committed by armed elements of the ex Seleka and anti Balaka as well as other armed groups including the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and that women and girls continue to be violently targeted and victims of sexual and gender based violence in the CAR,

Welcoming the ratification by CAR Authorities of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 21 September 2017 and underlining the importance of its full implementation,

Emphasizing that the continued role and contribution of neighbouring countries, the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the International Conference on the Great Lakes region (ICGLR), as well as the African Union (AU), remains critical for the promotion of lasting peace and stability in the CAR, reiteratingappreciation for their ongoing efforts in this regard,

Welcoming the strong engagement of the European Union and the positive engagement of the Community of Sant'Egidio through the agreement signed in Rome on 19 June 2017 that constituted a step towards peace and stability in the CAR, as well as the engagement of other International Organizations such as the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and further welcoming the bilateral contributions of Member States to the stabilization of the CAR,

Calling on international partners to assist the CAR Authorities in building the institutional and operational capacities of national police, gendarmerie and customs authorities to effectively monitor the borders and points of entry, including to support the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017) and the disarmament and repatriation of foreign armed elements,

Stressing the need to implement MINUSCA's mandate, based on the prioritization of tasks, and, when relevant, in a phased manner,

Welcoming the Report of the Secretary-General of 16 October 2017 (document S/2017/865),

Determining that the situation in the CAR continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

Political process

1. Renews its support to President Faustin Archange Touadera, and to his government and welcomes his efforts to advance the dialogue with armed groups and extend state authority in all parts of the country, as well as his commitments at the High Level Event on the CAR in the margin of the General Assembly in September 2017;

2. Welcomes the steps that were taken in this regard, such as the adoption and implementation of the National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (RCPCA), the adoption of a National Strategy for the Restoration of State Authority, the adoption of a National Security Policy and National Strategy for SSR, the validation of a Reform Plan for the Internal Security Forces, the launch of the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation pilot project, as well as the recent efforts that were made to ensure a greater representation of all components of the society within the Government of the CAR, and encourages CAR Authorities to continue their efforts to build more inclusive governance mechanisms in order to foster a conducive environment to national consensus and political progress;

3. Welcomes the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR that led to the adoption of the road map by the ministerial conference held in Libreville on 17 July 2017 by the CAR authorities, the African Union, the ECCAS, the ICGLR with the support of Angola, Chad, Congo and Gabon, and reaffirms that this Initiative and this road map constitute the main framework for a political solution in the CAR, as agreed by CAR Authorities and under their leadership;

4. Reiterates the need to coordinate all efforts in support of peace and reconciliation in the CAR, encourages the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation to work closely with the United Nations, and welcomes in this regard the decision of the Panel of Facilitators to ensure consistency in a strategic and operational partnership with MINUSCA as well as the assistance provided by the mission to the Panel, and further calls on international partners to provide political and financial support the work of the Panel of Facilitators;

5. Urges the CAR authorities and the armed groups to engage constructively and in good faith in an inclusive peace process to reach a comprehensive political agreement as reiterated by the ECCAS Foreign ministers extraordinary meeting on 21 October 2017;

6. Demands that all militias and armed groups lay down their arms, cease all forms of violence and destabilizing activities, including attacks against peacekeepers and humanitarian workers as well as incitement to hatred and violence, and release children from their ranks, immediately and unconditionally, and urges all political and institutional actors in the CAR to strongly condemn and hinder such acts;

7. Further demands that all militias and armed groups end attacks against peacekeepers and humanitarian workers;

8. Urges the CAR authorities to urgently implement a genuine and inclusive reconciliation in the CAR, including by addressing marginalization and local grievances of all the components of society over the whole territory of the CAR, including through national policies on economic development and civil service recruitment, and to promote reconciliation initiatives at the regional, national, prefectural and local levels, including through local elections;

9. Also calls upon the CAR authorities to ensure that national policies and legislative frameworks adequately protect the human rights of IDPs, including freedom of movement, and supports durable solutions for IDPs and refugee populations, including the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return to one's home or local integration or resettlement;

10. Recalls the crucial role of civil society in the peace and reconciliation process to ensure that the comprehensive political agreement addresses the root causes of the conflict and further encourages the full and effective participation of women in this process;

11. Underscores the importance of respect for the Constitution to ensure the long-term stabilization and development of the CAR;

12. Encourages the submission by Member States of listing requests to the Committee established by paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013), including detailed evidentiary support for each request, of individuals and entities engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

13. Urges the CAR Authorities to address the presence and activity of armed groups in the CAR by implementing a comprehensive strategy that prioritizes dialogue and the urgent implementation of an inclusive disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programme, to be implemented in coherence with security sector reform which ensures civilian oversight of defence and national security forces, with the support of the international community;

14. Calls on the CAR Authorities to implement the National Security Policy and the National Strategy on SSR, in order to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national defence and internal security forces, including through the adoption and implementation of appropriate vetting procedures of all defence and security personnel, including human rights vetting, as well as measures to absorb elements of armed groups meeting rigorous eligibility and vetting criteria, and requests the Secretary General to report to the Council on progress taken in this regard as part of his regular reporting cycle;

15. Welcomes the finalization, in coordination with MINUSCA and EUTM-RCA, of the 2017 2019 Guidance Document for the Redeployment of CAR armed forces, as requested by resolution 2301 (2016), which establishes the conditions for the progressive redeployment of the FACA units trained by EUTM RCA, in coordination with MINUSCA, EUTM RCA and other relevant international partners, in order to contribute to the extension of State authority and security and further calls on CAR Authorities to design and finalize, within a reasonable time, other procedures necessary to the full reoperationalization of FACA;

16. Calls on the CAR Authorities to take concrete steps, without delay and as a matter of priority, to strengthen justice institutions and to fight impunity, in order to contribute to stabilization and reconciliation, including, inter alia, by restoring administration of the judiciary, criminal justice and penitentiary systems throughout the country, by demilitarizing the prisons and gradually replace the FACA by recruiting civilian prison personnel and by ensuring access to fair and equal justice for all;

17. Welcomes in this regard the progressive operationalization of the SCC and the nomination of the Steering Committee for the implementation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission;

18. Also calls on the CAR Authorities to continue their efforts to restore the effective authority of the State over the whole territory of the CAR, including by redeploying State administration in the provinces, and ensuring the timely payment of salaries to civil servants and Security forces, with the objective of ensuring stable, accountable, inclusive and transparent governance;

19. Encourages the CAR Authorities, with the support of the international community, in particular with international financial institutions (IFIs) leading international efforts, and based on critical peace and State-building goals, to continue consolidating public financial management and accountability, including revenue collection, expenditure controls, public procurement and concession practices building on relevant international experiences and in a manner that allows it to meet the expenses related to the functioning of the State, implement early recovery plans, and revitalize the economy, and fosters national ownership and respects the sovereignty of the CAR;

20. Further calls on Member States, international and regional organizations to disburse pledges made at the international conference in Brussels (17 November 2016), as well as the African Solidarity Conference held in Addis Ababa (1 February 2017), in support of the implementation of the country's peacebuilding priorities as outlined in the CAR's National Strategy for Recovery and Peace consolidation to provide support to the CAR Authorities for the reforms, for the restoration of the State authority over the whole territory, including contributions for the payment of salaries and other needs, in addition to support for the security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programmes and for the restoration of the judiciary and the criminal justice system including the SCC and, in that regard, encourages the CAR Authorities to accelerate the effective implementation of the RCPCA;

21. Welcomes the continued engagement of the United Nations, including the Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), the African Union (AU), the ECCAS, the ICGLR, neighbouring States, the European Union, the International Contact Group (ICG), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and other international partners and donors in support of the stabilization of the CAR;

22. Takes note of the development of a framework of mutual accountability between the CAR Authorities and international partners under the leadership of the Government of the CAR, with the aim of enhancing transparency and accountability as well as the coherence and sustained support of the CAR's international partners in support of agreed national priorities;

23. Stresses in this context the valuable role of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in bringing strategic advice and fostering a more coherent, coordinated and integrated approach to international peacebuilding efforts, recognizes the active role of the Kingdom of Morocco, and encourages continued coordination with the PBC and other relevant international organizations and institutions in support of CAR's long-term peace building needs;

Human rights, including child protection and sexual violence in conflict

24. Reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, irrespective of their status or political affiliation, and reiterates that some of those acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), to which the CAR is a State party;

25. Recalls the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of the national Authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012, and welcomes the ongoing cooperation of the CAR authorities in this regard;

26. Takes note in this regard of the report of the Mapping Project describing serious violations and abuses of international human rights and violations of international humanitarian law committed within the territory of CAR between January 2003 and December 2015 and further calls on the CAR Authorities to follow up on the recommendations;

27. Urges all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, to end all violations and abuses committed against children, in violation of applicable international law, including those involving their recruitment and use, rape and sexual violence, killing and maiming, abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals and further calls upon the CAR authorities to swiftly investigate alleged violations and abuses in order to hold perpetrators accountable and to ensure that those responsible for such violations and abuses are excluded from the security sector;

28. Reiterates its demands that all parties protect and consider as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups, and emphasizes the need to pay particular attention to the protection, release and reintegration of all children associated with armed forces and armed groups;

29. Calls upon all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, to end sexual and gender-based violence, and further calls upon the CAR Authorities to swiftly investigate alleged abuses in order to hold perpetrators accountable, and to develop a structured and comprehensive framework to address sexual violence in conflict, in line with resolutions 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013), to ensure that those responsible for such crimes are excluded from the security sector and prosecuted, and to facilitate immediate access for victims of sexual violence to available services;

Peacekeeping Operation

30. Renews its strong support to Special Representative of the Secretary-General Parfait Onanga-Anyanga;

31. Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2018;

32. Decides to authorise an increase of 900 military personnel in addition to the military personnel authorized by paragraph 24 of resolution 2301 (2016) in order to increase MINUSCA's flexibility and mobility to improve the efficient implementation of its full mandate and, in particular, the protection of civilians task provided at paragraph 42 (a), thereby resulting in an authorized troop ceiling of 11,650 military personnel, including 480 Military Observers and Military Staff Officers, 2,080 police personnel, including 400 Individual Police Officers, as well as 108 corrections officers, and recalls its intention to keep this number under continuous review;

33. Reiterates the importance of current and future troop- and police-contributing countries providing troops and police with adequate capabilities, equipment and predeployment training in order to enhance the capacity of MINUSCA to operate effectively and requests the Secretary General to accelerate the recruitment of qualified staff, who have the competencies, education, work experience and language skills to adequately and effectively implement the tasks enumerated in paragraphs 42 to 44 below;

34. Requests the Secretary General to take all possible steps, including through the full use of existing authorities and at his discretion, to maximize MINUSCA's operational capacity and ability to discharge its mandate, with a specific focus on priority areas, over the entire territory of the CAR, including by using new rapidly deployable units and through enhancing MINUSCA's personnel, mobility assets and capabilities for gathering timely, reliable and actionable information on threats to civilians and the analytical tools to use it, while continuing to strengthen the performance of the Mission;

35. Commends the commitment of the troop- and police-contributing countries in implementing the mission's mandate in a challenging environment, and in this connection, highlights that undeclared national caveats, lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment may adversely affect the shared responsibility for effective mandate implementation;

36. Notes the progress of all troop- and police-contributing countries to meet UN standards and calls on them to immediately finalize the procurement and deployment of all required contingent owned equipment, in order to comply with United Nations standards for troops and police;

37. Calls on the Secretariat to continue to explore, on the basis of need, the use of specialized police teams together with required specialized equipment, for police and gendarmerie capacity building and development and operational support;

38. Urges MINUSCA and all relevant United Nations bodies, to ensure unhindered access and safety for the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), in particular to persons, documents and sites within their control in order for the Panel to execute its mandate;

39. Recalls that MINUSCA's strategic objective is to support the creation of conditions conducive to the sustainable reduction of the presence of, and threat posed by, armed groups through a comprehensive approach and proactive and robust posture without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping;

40. Recalls that MINUSCA's mandate should be implemented based on a prioritization of tasks established in paragraphs 42 to 44 of this resolution, and, when relevant, in a phased manner, and further requests the Secretary General to reflect this prioritization in the deployment of the mission and to align budgetary resources according to the prioritization of mandate tasks as set out in this resolution, while ensuring appropriate resources for the implementation of the mandate;

41. Authorises MINUSCA to take all necessary means to carry out its mandate within its capabilities and areas of deployment;

42. Decides that the mandate of MINUSCA shall include the following priority tasks:

(a) Protection of civilians

(i) To protect, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities and the basic principles of peacekeeping in line with S/PRST/2015/22, the civilian population under threat of physical violence;

(ii) In support of CAR Authorities, to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to serious and credible threats to the civilian population and, in this regard, to enhance early warning, while maintaining a proactive deployment and a mobile, flexible and robust posture, as well as conducting active patrolling, in particular in high-risk areas;

(iii) To provide specific protection for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisers, Women Protection Advisers and Gender Advisers;

(iv) To identify and report threats to and attacks against civilians and implement prevention and response plans and strengthen civil military cooperation;

(v) To fully implement and deliver, in close consultation with humanitarian and human rights organizations and other relevant partners, the mission-wide protection of civilians strategy;

(b) Good offices and support to the peace process, including national reconciliation, social cohesion and transitional justice

(i) To enhance support for inclusive political dialogue, under the leadership of the Government of the CAR, and in partnership with the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR;

(ii) To assist the CAR authorities' efforts, at national and local levels, for an increased participation of political parties, civil society, and women to the peace process, in cooperation with the African Initiative and other mediation actors;

(iii) To provide good offices and technical expertise in support of efforts to address the root causes of conflict, in particular a greater focus on national reconciliation and local conflict resolution, working with relevant regional and local bodies and religious leaders, while ensuring the full and effective participation of women in line with the CAR action plan on women, peace and security, and drawing upon integrated information and analysis from the United Nations system in country;

(iv) To support efforts of the CAR authorities to address transitional justice as part of the peace and reconciliation process, and marginalization and local grievances, including through dialogue with the armed groups, civil society leaders including women and youth representatives, and by assisting national, prefectoral and local authorities to foster confidence among communities;

(v) To provide technical expertise to the Government of the CAR in its engagement with neighbouring countries, the ECCAS, and the AU, in consultation and coordination with UNOCA;

(vi) To continue to assist the political efforts of the AU, ECCAS, including the work of the Panel of Facilitators, to support the political process;

(c) Facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance

To improve coordination with humanitarian actors, in order to facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered, civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with United Nations guiding humanitarian principles and relevant provisions of international law, and for the voluntary safe, dignified and sustainable return or local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons or refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors;

(d) Protection of the United Nations

To protect the United Nations personnel, installations, equipment and goods and ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;

43. Further authorises MINUSCA to pursue the following tasks of its mandate, bearing in mind that these tasks as well as those in paragraph 42 above are mutually reinforcing:

(a) Support for the extension of State authority, the deployment of security forces, and the preservation of territorial integrity

(i) To continue to support the Government in implementing its strategy for the extension of State authority including by providing advice to the Government of the CAR on the establishment of interim security and administrative arrangements acceptable to the population and under Government of the CAR oversight, and through sequenced efforts based on identified priorities and targeted geographic areas, to articulate a division of labour with the United Nations Country Team and relevant partners in which MINUSCA would focus on immediate, short and medium-term priorities and hand over activities in long term areas to relevant partners and to report to the Security council on benchmarks for tasks to be handed over to the United Nations Country Team and partners;

(ii) To support a gradual handover of security of key officials, and static guard duties of national institutions, to the CAR security forces, in coordination with the CAR Authorities, and based on the risks on the ground;

(iii) To promote and support the rapid extension of State authority over the entire territory of the CAR, including by supporting the deployment of vetted and trained national police and gendarmerie in priority areas, including through co location, advising, mentoring and monitoring, in coordination with other partners, as part of the deployment of the territorial administration and other rule of law authorities, for increasing State presence in these priority areas outside of Bangui;

(iv) On the basis of the 2017 2019 Guidance Document for the Redeployment of CAR armed forces, requested by resolution 2301 (2016), to consider providing support to the progressive and coordinated redeployment of FACA units trained by EUTM RCA, as an element of the strategy for the extension of State authority, in accordance with the United Nations human rights due diligence policy and with the guarantee that is does not constitutes a risk to the stabilization of the country, civilians or the political process, and requesting the Secretary General to present recommendations, with detailed benchmarks and timelines, to the Security Council for its consideration and possible approval within 6 months of the adoption of this resolution, while keeping in mind that technical agreements between the United Nations and donors could be considered to support the CAR defence forces;

(b) Security Sector Reform

(i) To provide strategic and technical advice to the CAR Authorities to implement the National Strategy on security sector reform, in close coordination with EUTM RCA, and with the aim of ensuring coherence of the security sector reform process, including through a clear delineation of responsibilities of the FACA, the internal security forces, and other uniformed entities, as well as the democratic control of both defence and internal security forces;

(ii) To support the CAR Authorities in developing an approach to the vetting of defence and security elements (FACA, police and gendarmerie) which includes human rights vetting, in particular to promote accountability of violations of international and domestic law amongst security forces and in the context of any integration of demobilized armed groups elements into security sector institutions;

(iii) To take a leading role in supporting the CAR Authorities in implementing the National Capacity-Building and Development Plan for Internal Security Forces, particularly command and control structures and oversight mechanisms, and coordinate international assistance in this regard;

(iv) To support the Government of the CAR in developing an incentive structure for training of police and gendarmerie and for the selection, recruitment, vetting and training of police and gendarmerie elements, with the support of donors and the United Nations country team, taking into account the need to recruit women, and in full compliance with the United Nations human rights due diligence policy;

(v) To coordinate the provision of technical assistance and training between the international partners in the CAR, in particular with EUTM RCA, in order to ensure a clear distribution of tasks in the field of SSR, for the benefit of both the FACA and the CAR internal security forces (police and gendarmerie);

(c) Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation

(i) To support the CAR Authorities in developing and implementing an inclusive and progressive programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and, in case of foreign elements, repatriation, of members of armed groups, based on the Principles of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation and integration into the Uniformed Corps, signed at the Bangui Forum on 10 May 2015, while paying specific attention to the needs of children associated with armed forces and groups and the need to prevent re-recruitment, including through the implementation of the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation pilot project and the implementation of other disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation projects, including gender-sensitive programmes, with the aim to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate as well as, in coordination with EUTM, the United Nations Country Teams and other relevant partners, to integrate eligible and vetted armed groups elements in security forces, as an incentive to armed groups to remain engaged in the political process and in preparation for the national disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programme;

(ii) To support the CAR Authorities and relevant civil society organizations in developing and implementing CVR programmes, including gender-sensitive programmes, for members of armed groups non-eligible for participation in the national disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programme, in cooperation with development partners and together with communities of return in line with the priorities highlighted in the RCPCA;

(iii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities in developing and implementing a national plan for the integration of eligible demobilized members of armed groups into the security and defence forces, in line with the broader security sector reform agenda and the need to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national security and defence;

(d) Promotion and protection of human rights

(i) To monitor, help investigate, and report publicly and to the Security Council on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR;

(ii) To monitor, help investigate and ensure reporting on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including rape and other forms of sexual violence in armed conflict, in connection with the Joint Rapid Response Unit within the gendarmerie and the police established to respond to sexual violence (UMIRR);

(iii) To assist the CAR Authorities in their efforts to protect and promote human rights and prevent violations and abuses and to strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations;

(e) Support for national and international justice, the fight against impunity, and the rule of law

(i) To help reinforce the independence of the judiciary, build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the national judicial system, as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of the penitentiary system;

(ii) To help build the capacities of the national human rights institution coordinating with the Independent Expert on human rights as appropriate;

Urgent temporary measures:

(iii) To urgently and actively adopt, within the limits of its capacities and areas of deployment, at the formal request of the CAR authorities and in areas where national security forces are not present or operational, urgent temporary measures on an exceptional basis and without creating a precedent and without prejudice to the agreed principles of peacekeeping operations, which are limited in scope, time bound and consistent with the objectives set out in paragraphs 42 and 43 (e), to arrest and detain in order to maintain basic law and order and fight impunity;

(iv) To pay particular attention, in implementing the urgent temporary measures in the conditions stated above, to those engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

Special Criminal Court:

(v) To provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities to identify, investigate and prosecute those responsible for crimes involving violations of international humanitarian law and of violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR so that they can be brought to justice, and to help prevent such violations and abuses;

(vi) To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to the justice and correctional institutions to reinstate the criminal justice system, within the framework of the United Nations global focal point on rule of law, in a manner that emphasizes civilian oversight, impartiality and the protection of human rights;

(vii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in partnership with other international partners, to support the operationalization of the Special Criminal Court consistent with CAR laws and jurisdiction and in line with the CAR's international humanitarian law and international human rights law obligations, with the aim of supporting the extension of State authority;

(viii) To provide technical assistance, in partnership with other international partners, and capacity building for the CAR Authorities, in order to facilitate the functioning of the Special Criminal Court, in particular in the areas of investigations, arrests, detention, criminal and forensic analysis, evidence collection and storage, recruitment and selection of personnel, court management, prosecution strategy and case development and the establishment of a legal aid system, as appropriate, as well as, to provide security for magistrates, including at the premises and proceedings of the Special Criminal Court, and take measures for the protection of victims and witnesses, in line with the CAR's international human rights obligations, including with respect to fair trials, and due process;

(ix) To assist in the coordination and mobilization of bilateral and multilateral support to the operationalization and functioning of the Special Criminal Court;

Rule of law:

(x) To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the criminal justice system as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of police and penitentiary system;

(xi) Without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities, to support the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, including through apprehending and handing over to the CAR Authorities, consistent with international law, those in the country responsible for crimes involving serious human rights violations and abuses and serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual violence in conflict, so that they can be brought to justice, and through cooperation with States of the region, as well as the ICC in cases of crimes falling within its jurisdiction;

(f) Illicit exploitation and trafficking of natural resources

To continue to support the CAR Authorities to develop and finalize a nationally owned strategy to tackle the illicit exploitation and trafficking networks of natural resources which continue to fund and supply armed groups in the CAR taking into account, where appropriate, the reports of the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013) and the decisions of the Kimberley Process (KP), with the aim of extending the State authority over the entire territory and its resources;

44. Further authorises MINUSCA to carry out the following additional tasks:

(a) To coordinate international assistance as appropriate;

(b) To assist the Committee established pursuant to paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013) and the Panel of Experts established by the same resolution, including by passing information relevant to the implementation of the mandate of the Committee and Panel of Experts;

(c) To monitor the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017), in cooperation with the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), including by inspecting, as it deems necessary and when appropriate without notice, all arms and related materiel regardless of location, and advise the Authorities on efforts to keep armed groups from exploiting natural resources;

(d) To seize and collect arms and any related materiel the transfer of which to the CAR violates the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017) and to record and dispose of such arms and related materiel as appropriate;

(e) To provide transport for relevant State authorities in carrying out inspections and monitoring visits in key mining areas and sites as appropriate and on a case by case basis and when the situation allows, as a means to promote and support the rapid extension of the State authority over the entire territory;

45. Requests the Secretary General to deploy and allocate personnel and expertise within MINUSCA to reflect the priorities identified by paragraph 42 to paragraph 44 of this resolution, and to continuously adjust this deployment according to the progresses made in the implementation of this mandate;

46. Encourages MINUSCA to develop measurable targets by which to assess progress against the pursuit of the strategic objective defined in paragraph 39 of this resolution;

47. Requests MINUSCA to continue using relevant and tailored communication tools, in particular radio, to help the local population better understand the mandate of the mission, its activities, and to build trust with the CAR citizens, parties to the conflict, regional and other international actors and partners on the ground as part of an effective political strategy;

48. Requests MINUSCA to consider the environmental impacts of its operations when fulfilling its mandated tasks and, in this context, to manage them as appropriate and in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions and United Nations rules and regulations;

49. Calls on the CAR, its neighbouring States and other member States of the ICGLR to cooperate at the regional level to investigate and combat regional criminal networks and armed groups involved in the illegal exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds and wildlife poaching and trafficking;

50. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account child protection as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR authorities in ensuring that the protection of children's rights is taken into account, inter alia, in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes and in security sector reform in order to end and prevent violations and abuses against children;

51. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account gender mainstreaming as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR Authorities in ensuring the full and effective participation, involvement and representation of women in all spheres and at all levels, including in stabilization activities, transitional justice, the work of the SCC and of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, security sector reform, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes, as well as in the national political dialogue and electoral processes, through, inter alia, the provision of gender advisers, further requests enhanced reporting by MINUSCA to the Council on this issue, and encourages the UN Secretariat, in collaboration with Member States, to engage greater numbers of women in the military, police and civilian components of the mission with full respect for the principle of equitable geographical distribution, in conformity with article 101, paragraph 3, of the United Nations Charter;

52. Recalls its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 and its resolution 2272 (2016) and requests the Secretary-General to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance of MINUSCA with the United Nations zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to ensure that all personnel of the mission are vetted for history of sexual misconduct in the service with the United Nations and to keep the Council informed through his reports to the Council about the Mission's progress in this regard, including by reporting on the start, agreed deadlines and outcomes of 2272 reviews, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to take appropriate preventative action including predeployment awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel;

53. Requests MINUSCA to ensure that any support provided to non United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the human rights due diligence policy, and requests the Secretary-General to include information on any such support in his reports to the Council;

54. Emphasizes the need for MINUSCA and EUTM RCA, while carrying out their mandate, to act in full respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of the CAR and in full compliance with applicable international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law and recalls the importance of training in this regard;

Weapon and ammunition management

55. Requests MINUSCA to actively seize, confiscate and destroy, as appropriate, the weapons and ammunitions of armed elements, including all militias and other non-State armed groups, who refuse or fail to lay down their arms, and when they present an imminent threat to civilians or the stability of the state;

56. Requests MINUSCA to provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in the operationalization of the national commission for Small Arms and Light Weapons to address civilian disarmament and the fight against the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons;

57. Requests MINUSCA to destroy, as appropriate, the weapons and ammunitions of disarmed combatants in keeping with its effort to seize and collect arms and related materiel the supply, sale or transfer of which violate the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017);

58. Calls upon the CAR Authorities and international partners and relevant United Nations entities, in coordination with MINUSCA and United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), to address the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in the CAR, and to ensure the safe and effective management, storage and security of stockpiles of small arms and light weapons, and the collection and/or destruction of surplus, seized, unmarked, or illicitly held weapons and ammunition, and further stresses the importance of incorporating such elements into security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programmes;

59. Encourages the CAR Authorities to implement the Central African Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair or Assembly signed at Kinshasa on 30 April 2010;

MINUSCA Freedom of movement

60. Urges all parties in the CAR to cooperate fully with the deployment and activities of MINUSCA, in particular by ensuring its safety, security and freedom of movement with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of the CAR to enable MINUSCA to carry out fully its mandate in a complex environment including by helping to ensure the full and effective implementation of, and compliance with, the host country agreement by the CAR authorities;

61. Calls upon Member States, especially those in the region, to ensure the free, unhindered and expeditious movement to and from the CAR of all personnel, as well as equipment, provisions, supplies and other goods, including vehicles and spare parts, which are for the exclusive and official use of MINUSCA;

Humanitarian access

62. Demands that all parties allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in particular to internally displaced persons, throughout the territory of the CAR, in accordance with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance and relevant provisions of international law;

63. Further demands that all parties ensure respect and protection of all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities;

Humanitarian appeal

64. Calls on Member States and international and regional organizations to respond swiftly to the revised humanitarian appeal through increased contributions and to ensure that all pledges are honoured in full and in a timely manner;

Support to MINUSCA

65. Authorises French armed forces, within the provisions of their existing bilateral agreement with the CAR and the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, at the request of the Secretary General, to use all the means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat, from the date of adoption of this resolution, and requests France to ensure reporting to the Council on the implementation of this mandate and to coordinate its reporting with that of the Secretary General referred to in paragraph 67 of this resolution;

Review and Reporting

66. Requests the Secretary General to review on a regular basis the conditions required for the transition, drawdown and withdrawal of the United Nations operation, in a manner which does not prejudice overall efforts to support long term objectives for peace and stability, and looks forward to receiving this information as part of his regular reporting to the Security Council;

67. Requests the Secretary General to keep the Council regularly informed of the situation in the CAR and the implementation of the mandate of MINUSCA, to report to the Council, on 15 February 2018, and then every four months from that date, and to include in his reports to the Council updates on and recommendations related to the dynamic implementation of MINUSCA's mandated tasks, including by providing appropriate financial information, information on the security situation, the priority political elements as defined above on political progress, progress on mechanisms and capacity to advance governance and fiscal management, relevant information on the progress, promotion and protection of human rights and international humanitarian law, a review of the troop and police levels, force and police generation and deployment of all MINUSCA's constituent elements, information on the progress in the implementation of the measures taken to improve MINUSCA's performance, including measures to ensure force effectiveness as outlined in paragraphs 33 to 37 and 45, as well as on the outcomes of the performance review of troop- and police-contributing countries that will be conducted by MINUSCA no later than the end of the first quarter of 2018;

68. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Source: United Nations Radio

Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2387 (2017) Security Council Extends Mandate, Increases Troop Levels of Stabilization Mission in Central African Republic

The Security Council this morning extended the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) until 15 November 2018, increasing its troop level to provide greater capabilities in protecting civilians and other mandated tasks.

Unanimously adopting resolution 2387 (2017) the Council decided to increase the Mission's troop limit by 900 military personnel, resulting in an authorized troop ceiling of 11,650 military personnel, including 480 military observers and military staff officers, 2,080 police personnel and 108 corrections officers.

The Secretary General's latest report on the Central African Republic (document S/2017/865) found that, due to the resurgence of violence over a wide area of the country, the Mission's resources were overstretched. It recommended augmenting capabilities in protection while also focusing on the core task of facilitating the political process.

Through today's text, the Council requested the Secretary-General to maximize operational capacity by enhancing MINUSCA's personnel, mobility and data gathering capabilities. Commending the commitment of troop- and police contributing countries to carry out the mandate in a challenging environment, it highlighted, however, the adverse effects of lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment.

The Council requested the Secretary General to ensure that all personnel of the mission be vetted for history of sexual misconduct in their service with the United Nations and to keep the Council informed on the start, agreed deadlines and outcomes of reviews, urging contributing countries to carry out predeployment awareness training and ensure full accountability for violations.

The Council, in addition, renewed its authorization for French forces to use all means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat.

In addition to delineating tasks under the protection of civilians and support to the peace process, the Council, through the text, described in detail a wide range of responsibilities for MINUSCA, from support for the rule of law and for ensuring a secure environment for the delivery of humanitarian aid to support for the extension of state authority and for the Central African Armed Forces (FACA).

On the political front, the Council renewed its support to the Government of President Faustin Archange Touadera, welcoming his efforts to advance dialogue with armed groups and extend State authority. It also affirmed that the roadmap of the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic was the main framework for a political solution in the country under national leadership.

Speaking after the vote, several Council members took the floor to welcome adoption of the text. Noting deterioration of the humanitarian situation, they affirmed the Council's full support for the people of the Central African Republic and MINUSCA. Francois Delattre (France) stressed that relapse into the full crisis of 2012 was unthinkable and all resources must be deployed to prevent it. In strengthening MINUSCA, the resolution would enable the Mission to deliver on its civilian protection mandate. It had already demonstrated that it could act robustly to protect vulnerable civilians from armed groups, he said.

He also welcomed the resolution's enhancement of efforts to prevent sexual abuse by peacekeepers. He commented, in addition, that gradual redeployment of the national armed forces trained by the European Union was an important element in the country's reestablishment of State control over its territory. Full support to the President and the African Initiative to reconciliation was also important in that regard.

Also welcoming the resolution's support for African efforts, Amr Abdellatif Aboulatta (Egypt) said that the increase of the size of the MINUSCA would let it face challenges more effectively. As a major contributor to the Mission, he affirmed that triangular cooperation was the best means for increasing the effectiveness of troops. Based on those arrangements, he welcomed progress in fighting sexual abuse. Stressing that deployment of the national armed forces was critical for restoring State authority, he looked forward to the proposals of the Secretary General in that regard. He also called for full resourcing of the Mission.

Michele J. Sison (United States) emphasized that her country considered each Mission carefully in order to ensure it had the right capacity. MINUSCA had a clear mandate with a clear exit strategy and was headed in the right direction. Increasing troop strength was appropriate at this point, but focus on quality as well as quantity was needed. In that regard, she welcomed efforts to meet equipment standards and head on action to deal with accusations of abuse. She stressed that sustainable peace in the country required strengthening of the national security forces.

Petr V. Iliichev (Russian Federation), in addition, urged that the focus be kept on protection of civilians and support to the political process as called for by the resolution, so that peacekeeping efforts were not spread out too thinly. Mobility of forces, he said, was critical both for protection and to allow Bangui to focus on peace and reconciliation. National Forces must be built properly for sustainable peace. Commenting on the issue of sexual abuse by peacekeepers, he said it was not acceptable for a whole contingent to be sent home due to such allegations.

Marcien Aubin Kpatamango (Central African Republic) thanked the Council for its action and said that armed violence continued to hold sway over a large part of his country. By strengthening MINUSCA, the resolution just adopted would assist the Mission in helping the country to face its challenges. The recent uptick in violence, he added, was a reminder that only a long term development strategy could sustainably end instability. However, an effective peacekeeping mission was a critical and present necessity. Our country deserves a better future and it will have one thanks to you, he said.

The meeting began at 10:28 a.m. and ended at 10:51 a.m.

Resolution

The full text of resolution 2387 (2017) reads as follows:

The Security Council,

Recalling its previous resolutions and statements on the Central African Republic (CAR), in particular resolutions 2121 (2013), 2127 (2013), 2134 (2014), 2149 (2014), 2181 (2014), 2196 (2015), 2212 (2015), 2217 (2015), 2262 (2016), 2264 (2016), 2281 (2016), 2301 (2016), 2339 (2017), as well as resolution 2272 (2016), and its Presidential Statements S/PRST/2014/28 of 18 December 2014, S/PRST/2015/17 of 20 October 2015, S/PRST/2016/17 of 16 November 2016, S/PRST/2017/5 of 4 April 2017 and S/PRST/9 of 13 July 2017,

Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the CAR, and recalling the importance of the principles of non-interference, good-neighbourliness and regional cooperation,

Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality, and non-use of force, except in self defence and defence of the mandate, recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the need and situation of the country concerned, and recalling, in this regard, its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 of 25 November 2015,

Recalling that the CAR Authorities have the primary responsibility to protect all populations in the CAR in particular from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and, in this regard, recalling the importance of restoring state authority in all parts of the country,

Emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in the CAR should be CAR-owned, including the political process, and should prioritize reconciliation of the Central African people, through an inclusive process that involves men and women of all social, economic, political, religious and ethnic backgrounds, including, those displaced by the crisis,

Expressing concern at the deterioration of the security situation, in particular in the south-eastern part and the north-western parts of the CAR, due to the ongoing clashes between armed groups in their attempts to forcefully gain control of territory and resources and destabilize the country, as well as the lack of capacity of the national security forces, and the persistence of the root causes of the conflict,

Condemning in the strongest terms incitement to ethnic and religious hatred and violence and the multiple violations of international humanitarian law and the widespread human rights violations and abuses, including sexual and gender-based violence, committed notably by both ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, as well as other militia groups, as well as the targeting of civilians from specific communities,

Recalling the submission of the report (document S/2014/928) of the International Commission of Inquiry established by resolution 2127 (2013), noting with concern its finding that the main parties to the conflict, including ex-Seleka, the anti Balaka, and elements from the CAR Armed Forces (FACA) who collaborated with armed groups committed violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses since 1 January 2013, that may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity, including ethnic cleansing by elements of the anti Balaka militia,

Condemning in the strongest terms all attacks, provocations and incitement to violence against the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) contingents and other international forces by armed groups or other perpetrators, paying tribute to the personnel of MINUSCA who sacrificed their lives in the service of peace, underlining that attacks targeting peacekeepers may constitute war crimes, reminding all parties of their obligations under international humanitarian law and urging the CAR Authorities to take all possible measures to ensure the arrest and prosecution of perpetrators,

Welcoming in this regard MINUSCA's efforts to protect civilians and to combat armed groups with the success of operation 'BEKPA' in Bambari in February and March 2017, operation 'MARAZE' in Bangassou in August 2017, and operation 'DAMAKONGO' in Bocaranga in October 2017,

Stressing the urgent and imperative need to end impunity in the CAR and to bring to justice perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and of abuses and violations of human rights, welcoming in this regard the progressive operationalization of the Special Criminal Court (SCC) and underlining the need to bolster the other national accountability mechanisms as well as the support for the work of the Independent Expert on human rights in the CAR,

Reiterating the primary responsibility of the national authorities to ensure a conducive environment for the effective and independent investigation, prosecution and adjudication of all cases, also emphasizing the need for the CAR government to ensure institutional preparedness to that end,

Welcoming steps initiated by the Government of the CAR in establishing transitional justice mechanisms to ensure accountability for past crimes and reparation for victims while promoting national reconciliation,

Welcoming the commitment of the Secretary-General to enforce strictly his zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), noting the various measures taken by MINUSCA and troop- and police-contributing countries to combat SEA, which has led to a reduction in reported cases, but still expressing grave concern over numerous allegations of SEA reportedly committed by peacekeepers in the CAR, as well as by non United Nations forces, stressing the urgent need for troop- and police-contributing countries and, as appropriate, MINUSCA, to promptly investigate those allegations in a credible and transparent manner and for those responsible for such criminal offences or misconduct to be held to account, and further stressing the need to prevent such exploitation and abuse and to improve how these allegations are addressed in line with resolution 2272 (2016),

Emphasizing the fact that the current security situation in the CAR provides a conducive environment for transnational criminal activity, such as that involving arms trafficking and the use of mercenaries as well as a potential breeding ground for radical networks,

Expressing grave concern at the threat to peace and security in the CAR arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and the use of such weapons against civilians,

Acknowledging in this respect the important contribution to the peace, stability or security of the CAR, of the Council-mandated sanctions regime renewed by resolution 2339 (2017), including its provisions related to the arms embargo, and its provisions related to individuals or entities designated by the Committee as engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR,

Reiterating that illicit trade, exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds, and wildlife poaching and trafficking continues to threaten the peace and stability of the CAR,

Expressing concern about reported travel by individuals designated pursuant to UNSC resolution 2127 (2013) and noting the critical importance of effective implementation of the sanctions regime, including the key role that neighbouring States, as well as regional and subregional organizations, can play in this regard and encouraging efforts to further enhance cooperation,

Reiterating its serious concern at the dire humanitarian situation in the CAR, the consequences of the deterioration of the security situation on humanitarian access, as well as the violence against humanitarian workers, and emphasizing in particular the current humanitarian needs of the more than 600,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) and nearly 500,000 refugees in neighbouring countries and further expressing concern at the consequences of the flow of refugees on the situation in Chad, Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as other countries of the region,

Recalling the responsibility of the CAR Authorities to protect and promote the right to freedom of movement of all people in the CAR, including IDPs, without distinction, their freedom to choose where to reside, and to comply with their right to return to their own country or to leave in order to seek asylum in other States and expressing concern for the plight of civilians trapped in enclaves with limited access to humanitarian assistance,

Recalling the holding of, and local participation in, grass-roots consultations throughout the country between 21 January and 8 March 2015, which enabled thousands of people in the CAR to express their views on the future of their country, and the holding of the Bangui Forum in May 2015, during which the Republican Pact for Peace, National Reconciliation and Reconstruction as well as agreements on the principles for disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation , justice and reconciliation, and security sector reform, and on the commitment by armed groups to end the recruitment and use of children and to release all children from their ranks, were adopted,

Recalling the peaceful organization of a constitutional referendum on 13 December 2015 and legislative and presidential elections in December 2015, February and March 2016, as well as the inauguration of the President Faustin Archange Touadera on 30 March 2016,

Recalling the need for an inclusive, gender sensitive and effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process, as well as repatriation in the case of foreign fighters, including children formerly associated with armed forces and groups, while respecting the need to fight against impunity,

Recalling the successful conduct of pre disarmament, demobilization and reintegration activities and Community Violence Reduction programmes which have contributed to reduce the presence of members of armed groups,

Underlining the continued need to support national, and to coordinate international, efforts towards the transformation of the security sector in the CAR and stressing the crucial role of the internal security forces (police and gendarmerie) in the restoration of community security, public safety and the rule of law in the CAR,

Welcoming in this regard the work done by the EU training mission (EUTM) to provide support to reform the FACA into multi ethnic, professional, and representative armed forces, as indicated in the letter of the High Representative of the EU for Foreign and Security policy dated 30 May 2016,

Recalling its resolutions on the protection of civilians in armed conflict, including 2286 (2016) and 1894 (2009); its resolutions on Children and Armed Conflict including 2225 (2015) and its resolutions on Women, Peace and Security including 2106 (2013) and 2242 (2015), and calling upon all parties in the CAR to engage with the Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict and the Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict,

Expressing its concern that children have continued to be victims of abuses committed by armed elements of the ex Seleka and anti Balaka as well as other armed groups including the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), and that women and girls continue to be violently targeted and victims of sexual and gender based violence in the CAR,

Welcoming the ratification by CAR Authorities of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict on 21 September 2017 and underlining the importance of its full implementation,

Emphasizing that the continued role and contribution of neighbouring countries, the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), the International Conference on the Great Lakes region (ICGLR), as well as the African Union (AU), remains critical for the promotion of lasting peace and stability in the CAR, reiteratingappreciation for their ongoing efforts in this regard,

Welcoming the strong engagement of the European Union and the positive engagement of the Community of Sant'Egidio through the agreement signed in Rome on 19 June 2017 that constituted a step towards peace and stability in the CAR, as well as the engagement of other International Organizations such as the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and further welcoming the bilateral contributions of Member States to the stabilization of the CAR,

Calling on international partners to assist the CAR Authorities in building the institutional and operational capacities of national police, gendarmerie and customs authorities to effectively monitor the borders and points of entry, including to support the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017) and the disarmament and repatriation of foreign armed elements,

Stressing the need to implement MINUSCA's mandate, based on the prioritization of tasks, and, when relevant, in a phased manner,

Welcoming the Report of the Secretary-General of 16 October 2017 (document S/2017/865),

Determining that the situation in the CAR continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region,

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

Political process

1. Renews its support to President Faustin Archange Touadera, and to his government and welcomes his efforts to advance the dialogue with armed groups and extend state authority in all parts of the country, as well as his commitments at the High Level Event on the CAR in the margin of the General Assembly in September 2017;

2. Welcomes the steps that were taken in this regard, such as the adoption and implementation of the National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (RCPCA), the adoption of a National Strategy for the Restoration of State Authority, the adoption of a National Security Policy and National Strategy for SSR, the validation of a Reform Plan for the Internal Security Forces, the launch of the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation pilot project, as well as the recent efforts that were made to ensure a greater representation of all components of the society within the Government of the CAR, and encourages CAR Authorities to continue their efforts to build more inclusive governance mechanisms in order to foster a conducive environment to national consensus and political progress;

3. Welcomes the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR that led to the adoption of the road map by the ministerial conference held in Libreville on 17 July 2017 by the CAR authorities, the African Union, the ECCAS, the ICGLR with the support of Angola, Chad, Congo and Gabon, and reaffirms that this Initiative and this road map constitute the main framework for a political solution in the CAR, as agreed by CAR Authorities and under their leadership;

4. Reiterates the need to coordinate all efforts in support of peace and reconciliation in the CAR, encourages the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation to work closely with the United Nations, and welcomes in this regard the decision of the Panel of Facilitators to ensure consistency in a strategic and operational partnership with MINUSCA as well as the assistance provided by the mission to the Panel, and further calls on international partners to provide political and financial support the work of the Panel of Facilitators;

5. Urges the CAR authorities and the armed groups to engage constructively and in good faith in an inclusive peace process to reach a comprehensive political agreement as reiterated by the ECCAS Foreign ministers extraordinary meeting on 21 October 2017;

6. Demands that all militias and armed groups lay down their arms, cease all forms of violence and destabilizing activities, including attacks against peacekeepers and humanitarian workers as well as incitement to hatred and violence, and release children from their ranks, immediately and unconditionally, and urges all political and institutional actors in the CAR to strongly condemn and hinder such acts;

7. Further demands that all militias and armed groups end attacks against peacekeepers and humanitarian workers;

8. Urges the CAR authorities to urgently implement a genuine and inclusive reconciliation in the CAR, including by addressing marginalization and local grievances of all the components of society over the whole territory of the CAR, including through national policies on economic development and civil service recruitment, and to promote reconciliation initiatives at the regional, national, prefectural and local levels, including through local elections;

9. Also calls upon the CAR authorities to ensure that national policies and legislative frameworks adequately protect the human rights of IDPs, including freedom of movement, and supports durable solutions for IDPs and refugee populations, including the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return to one's home or local integration or resettlement;

10. Recalls the crucial role of civil society in the peace and reconciliation process to ensure that the comprehensive political agreement addresses the root causes of the conflict and further encourages the full and effective participation of women in this process;

11. Underscores the importance of respect for the Constitution to ensure the long-term stabilization and development of the CAR;

12. Encourages the submission by Member States of listing requests to the Committee established by paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013), including detailed evidentiary support for each request, of individuals and entities engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

13. Urges the CAR Authorities to address the presence and activity of armed groups in the CAR by implementing a comprehensive strategy that prioritizes dialogue and the urgent implementation of an inclusive disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programme, to be implemented in coherence with security sector reform which ensures civilian oversight of defence and national security forces, with the support of the international community;

14. Calls on the CAR Authorities to implement the National Security Policy and the National Strategy on SSR, in order to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national defence and internal security forces, including through the adoption and implementation of appropriate vetting procedures of all defence and security personnel, including human rights vetting, as well as measures to absorb elements of armed groups meeting rigorous eligibility and vetting criteria, and requests the Secretary General to report to the Council on progress taken in this regard as part of his regular reporting cycle;

15. Welcomes the finalization, in coordination with MINUSCA and EUTM-RCA, of the 2017 2019 Guidance Document for the Redeployment of CAR armed forces, as requested by resolution 2301 (2016), which establishes the conditions for the progressive redeployment of the FACA units trained by EUTM RCA, in coordination with MINUSCA, EUTM RCA and other relevant international partners, in order to contribute to the extension of State authority and security and further calls on CAR Authorities to design and finalize, within a reasonable time, other procedures necessary to the full reoperationalization of FACA;

16. Calls on the CAR Authorities to take concrete steps, without delay and as a matter of priority, to strengthen justice institutions and to fight impunity, in order to contribute to stabilization and reconciliation, including, inter alia, by restoring administration of the judiciary, criminal justice and penitentiary systems throughout the country, by demilitarizing the prisons and gradually replace the FACA by recruiting civilian prison personnel and by ensuring access to fair and equal justice for all;

17. Welcomes in this regard the progressive operationalization of the SCC and the nomination of the Steering Committee for the implementation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission;

18. Also calls on the CAR Authorities to continue their efforts to restore the effective authority of the State over the whole territory of the CAR, including by redeploying State administration in the provinces, and ensuring the timely payment of salaries to civil servants and Security forces, with the objective of ensuring stable, accountable, inclusive and transparent governance;

19. Encourages the CAR Authorities, with the support of the international community, in particular with international financial institutions (IFIs) leading international efforts, and based on critical peace and State-building goals, to continue consolidating public financial management and accountability, including revenue collection, expenditure controls, public procurement and concession practices building on relevant international experiences and in a manner that allows it to meet the expenses related to the functioning of the State, implement early recovery plans, and revitalize the economy, and fosters national ownership and respects the sovereignty of the CAR;

20. Further calls on Member States, international and regional organizations to disburse pledges made at the international conference in Brussels (17 November 2016), as well as the African Solidarity Conference held in Addis Ababa (1 February 2017), in support of the implementation of the country's peacebuilding priorities as outlined in the CAR's National Strategy for Recovery and Peace consolidation to provide support to the CAR Authorities for the reforms, for the restoration of the State authority over the whole territory, including contributions for the payment of salaries and other needs, in addition to support for the security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programmes and for the restoration of the judiciary and the criminal justice system including the SCC and, in that regard, encourages the CAR Authorities to accelerate the effective implementation of the RCPCA;

21. Welcomes the continued engagement of the United Nations, including the Regional Office for Central Africa (UNOCA), the African Union (AU), the ECCAS, the ICGLR, neighbouring States, the European Union, the International Contact Group (ICG), the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and other international partners and donors in support of the stabilization of the CAR;

22. Takes note of the development of a framework of mutual accountability between the CAR Authorities and international partners under the leadership of the Government of the CAR, with the aim of enhancing transparency and accountability as well as the coherence and sustained support of the CAR's international partners in support of agreed national priorities;

23. Stresses in this context the valuable role of the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) in bringing strategic advice and fostering a more coherent, coordinated and integrated approach to international peacebuilding efforts, recognizes the active role of the Kingdom of Morocco, and encourages continued coordination with the PBC and other relevant international organizations and institutions in support of CAR's long-term peace building needs;

Human rights, including child protection and sexual violence in conflict

24. Reiterates the urgent and imperative need to hold accountable all perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, irrespective of their status or political affiliation, and reiterates that some of those acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), to which the CAR is a State party;

25. Recalls the decision made by the Prosecutor of the ICC on 24 September 2014 to open, following the request of the national Authorities, an investigation into alleged crimes committed since 2012, and welcomes the ongoing cooperation of the CAR authorities in this regard;

26. Takes note in this regard of the report of the Mapping Project describing serious violations and abuses of international human rights and violations of international humanitarian law committed within the territory of CAR between January 2003 and December 2015 and further calls on the CAR Authorities to follow up on the recommendations;

27. Urges all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, to end all violations and abuses committed against children, in violation of applicable international law, including those involving their recruitment and use, rape and sexual violence, killing and maiming, abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals and further calls upon the CAR authorities to swiftly investigate alleged violations and abuses in order to hold perpetrators accountable and to ensure that those responsible for such violations and abuses are excluded from the security sector;

28. Reiterates its demands that all parties protect and consider as victims those children who have been released or otherwise separated from armed forces and armed groups, and emphasizes the need to pay particular attention to the protection, release and reintegration of all children associated with armed forces and armed groups;

29. Calls upon all parties to armed conflict in the CAR, including ex Seleka and anti Balaka elements, to end sexual and gender-based violence, and further calls upon the CAR Authorities to swiftly investigate alleged abuses in order to hold perpetrators accountable, and to develop a structured and comprehensive framework to address sexual violence in conflict, in line with resolutions 1960 (2010) and 2106 (2013), to ensure that those responsible for such crimes are excluded from the security sector and prosecuted, and to facilitate immediate access for victims of sexual violence to available services;

Peacekeeping Operation

30. Renews its strong support to Special Representative of the Secretary-General Parfait Onanga-Anyanga;

31. Decides to extend the mandate of MINUSCA until 15 November 2018;

32. Decides to authorise an increase of 900 military personnel in addition to the military personnel authorized by paragraph 24 of resolution 2301 (2016) in order to increase MINUSCA's flexibility and mobility to improve the efficient implementation of its full mandate and, in particular, the protection of civilians task provided at paragraph 42 (a), thereby resulting in an authorized troop ceiling of 11,650 military personnel, including 480 Military Observers and Military Staff Officers, 2,080 police personnel, including 400 Individual Police Officers, as well as 108 corrections officers, and recalls its intention to keep this number under continuous review;

33. Reiterates the importance of current and future troop- and police-contributing countries providing troops and police with adequate capabilities, equipment and predeployment training in order to enhance the capacity of MINUSCA to operate effectively and requests the Secretary General to accelerate the recruitment of qualified staff, who have the competencies, education, work experience and language skills to adequately and effectively implement the tasks enumerated in paragraphs 42 to 44 below;

34. Requests the Secretary General to take all possible steps, including through the full use of existing authorities and at his discretion, to maximize MINUSCA's operational capacity and ability to discharge its mandate, with a specific focus on priority areas, over the entire territory of the CAR, including by using new rapidly deployable units and through enhancing MINUSCA's personnel, mobility assets and capabilities for gathering timely, reliable and actionable information on threats to civilians and the analytical tools to use it, while continuing to strengthen the performance of the Mission;

35. Commends the commitment of the troop- and police-contributing countries in implementing the mission's mandate in a challenging environment, and in this connection, highlights that undeclared national caveats, lack of effective command and control, refusal to obey orders, failure to respond to attacks on civilians, and inadequate equipment may adversely affect the shared responsibility for effective mandate implementation;

36. Notes the progress of all troop- and police-contributing countries to meet UN standards and calls on them to immediately finalize the procurement and deployment of all required contingent owned equipment, in order to comply with United Nations standards for troops and police;

37. Calls on the Secretariat to continue to explore, on the basis of need, the use of specialized police teams together with required specialized equipment, for police and gendarmerie capacity building and development and operational support;

38. Urges MINUSCA and all relevant United Nations bodies, to ensure unhindered access and safety for the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), in particular to persons, documents and sites within their control in order for the Panel to execute its mandate;

39. Recalls that MINUSCA's strategic objective is to support the creation of conditions conducive to the sustainable reduction of the presence of, and threat posed by, armed groups through a comprehensive approach and proactive and robust posture without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping;

40. Recalls that MINUSCA's mandate should be implemented based on a prioritization of tasks established in paragraphs 42 to 44 of this resolution, and, when relevant, in a phased manner, and further requests the Secretary General to reflect this prioritization in the deployment of the mission and to align budgetary resources according to the prioritization of mandate tasks as set out in this resolution, while ensuring appropriate resources for the implementation of the mandate;

41. Authorises MINUSCA to take all necessary means to carry out its mandate within its capabilities and areas of deployment;

42. Decides that the mandate of MINUSCA shall include the following priority tasks:

(a) Protection of civilians

(i) To protect, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities and the basic principles of peacekeeping in line with S/PRST/2015/22, the civilian population under threat of physical violence;

(ii) In support of CAR Authorities, to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to serious and credible threats to the civilian population and, in this regard, to enhance early warning, while maintaining a proactive deployment and a mobile, flexible and robust posture, as well as conducting active patrolling, in particular in high-risk areas;

(iii) To provide specific protection for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisers, Women Protection Advisers and Gender Advisers;

(iv) To identify and report threats to and attacks against civilians and implement prevention and response plans and strengthen civil military cooperation;

(v) To fully implement and deliver, in close consultation with humanitarian and human rights organizations and other relevant partners, the mission-wide protection of civilians strategy;

(b) Good offices and support to the peace process, including national reconciliation, social cohesion and transitional justice

(i) To enhance support for inclusive political dialogue, under the leadership of the Government of the CAR, and in partnership with the African Initiative for Peace and Reconciliation in the CAR;

(ii) To assist the CAR authorities' efforts, at national and local levels, for an increased participation of political parties, civil society, and women to the peace process, in cooperation with the African Initiative and other mediation actors;

(iii) To provide good offices and technical expertise in support of efforts to address the root causes of conflict, in particular a greater focus on national reconciliation and local conflict resolution, working with relevant regional and local bodies and religious leaders, while ensuring the full and effective participation of women in line with the CAR action plan on women, peace and security, and drawing upon integrated information and analysis from the United Nations system in country;

(iv) To support efforts of the CAR authorities to address transitional justice as part of the peace and reconciliation process, and marginalization and local grievances, including through dialogue with the armed groups, civil society leaders including women and youth representatives, and by assisting national, prefectoral and local authorities to foster confidence among communities;

(v) To provide technical expertise to the Government of the CAR in its engagement with neighbouring countries, the ECCAS, and the AU, in consultation and coordination with UNOCA;

(vi) To continue to assist the political efforts of the AU, ECCAS, including the work of the Panel of Facilitators, to support the political process;

(c) Facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance

To improve coordination with humanitarian actors, in order to facilitate the creation of a secure environment for the immediate, full, safe and unhindered, civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with United Nations guiding humanitarian principles and relevant provisions of international law, and for the voluntary safe, dignified and sustainable return or local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons or refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors;

(d) Protection of the United Nations

To protect the United Nations personnel, installations, equipment and goods and ensure the security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;

43. Further authorises MINUSCA to pursue the following tasks of its mandate, bearing in mind that these tasks as well as those in paragraph 42 above are mutually reinforcing:

(a) Support for the extension of State authority, the deployment of security forces, and the preservation of territorial integrity

(i) To continue to support the Government in implementing its strategy for the extension of State authority including by providing advice to the Government of the CAR on the establishment of interim security and administrative arrangements acceptable to the population and under Government of the CAR oversight, and through sequenced efforts based on identified priorities and targeted geographic areas, to articulate a division of labour with the United Nations Country Team and relevant partners in which MINUSCA would focus on immediate, short and medium-term priorities and hand over activities in long term areas to relevant partners and to report to the Security council on benchmarks for tasks to be handed over to the United Nations Country Team and partners;

(ii) To support a gradual handover of security of key officials, and static guard duties of national institutions, to the CAR security forces, in coordination with the CAR Authorities, and based on the risks on the ground;

(iii) To promote and support the rapid extension of State authority over the entire territory of the CAR, including by supporting the deployment of vetted and trained national police and gendarmerie in priority areas, including through co location, advising, mentoring and monitoring, in coordination with other partners, as part of the deployment of the territorial administration and other rule of law authorities, for increasing State presence in these priority areas outside of Bangui;

(iv) On the basis of the 2017 2019 Guidance Document for the Redeployment of CAR armed forces, requested by resolution 2301 (2016), to consider providing support to the progressive and coordinated redeployment of FACA units trained by EUTM RCA, as an element of the strategy for the extension of State authority, in accordance with the United Nations human rights due diligence policy and with the guarantee that is does not constitutes a risk to the stabilization of the country, civilians or the political process, and requesting the Secretary General to present recommendations, with detailed benchmarks and timelines, to the Security Council for its consideration and possible approval within 6 months of the adoption of this resolution, while keeping in mind that technical agreements between the United Nations and donors could be considered to support the CAR defence forces;

(b) Security Sector Reform

(i) To provide strategic and technical advice to the CAR Authorities to implement the National Strategy on security sector reform, in close coordination with EUTM RCA, and with the aim of ensuring coherence of the security sector reform process, including through a clear delineation of responsibilities of the FACA, the internal security forces, and other uniformed entities, as well as the democratic control of both defence and internal security forces;

(ii) To support the CAR Authorities in developing an approach to the vetting of defence and security elements (FACA, police and gendarmerie) which includes human rights vetting, in particular to promote accountability of violations of international and domestic law amongst security forces and in the context of any integration of demobilized armed groups elements into security sector institutions;

(iii) To take a leading role in supporting the CAR Authorities in implementing the National Capacity-Building and Development Plan for Internal Security Forces, particularly command and control structures and oversight mechanisms, and coordinate international assistance in this regard;

(iv) To support the Government of the CAR in developing an incentive structure for training of police and gendarmerie and for the selection, recruitment, vetting and training of police and gendarmerie elements, with the support of donors and the United Nations country team, taking into account the need to recruit women, and in full compliance with the United Nations human rights due diligence policy;

(v) To coordinate the provision of technical assistance and training between the international partners in the CAR, in particular with EUTM RCA, in order to ensure a clear distribution of tasks in the field of SSR, for the benefit of both the FACA and the CAR internal security forces (police and gendarmerie);

(c) Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration and Repatriation

(i) To support the CAR Authorities in developing and implementing an inclusive and progressive programme for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and, in case of foreign elements, repatriation, of members of armed groups, based on the Principles of disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation and integration into the Uniformed Corps, signed at the Bangui Forum on 10 May 2015, while paying specific attention to the needs of children associated with armed forces and groups and the need to prevent re-recruitment, including through the implementation of the disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation pilot project and the implementation of other disarmament, demobilization, reintegration repatriation projects, including gender-sensitive programmes, with the aim to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate as well as, in coordination with EUTM, the United Nations Country Teams and other relevant partners, to integrate eligible and vetted armed groups elements in security forces, as an incentive to armed groups to remain engaged in the political process and in preparation for the national disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programme;

(ii) To support the CAR Authorities and relevant civil society organizations in developing and implementing CVR programmes, including gender-sensitive programmes, for members of armed groups non-eligible for participation in the national disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programme, in cooperation with development partners and together with communities of return in line with the priorities highlighted in the RCPCA;

(iii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities in developing and implementing a national plan for the integration of eligible demobilized members of armed groups into the security and defence forces, in line with the broader security sector reform agenda and the need to put in place professional, ethnically representative and regionally balanced national security and defence;

(d) Promotion and protection of human rights

(i) To monitor, help investigate, and report publicly and to the Security Council on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR;

(ii) To monitor, help investigate and ensure reporting on violations and abuses committed against children and women, including rape and other forms of sexual violence in armed conflict, in connection with the Joint Rapid Response Unit within the gendarmerie and the police established to respond to sexual violence (UMIRR);

(iii) To assist the CAR Authorities in their efforts to protect and promote human rights and prevent violations and abuses and to strengthen the capacity of civil society organizations;

(e) Support for national and international justice, the fight against impunity, and the rule of law

(i) To help reinforce the independence of the judiciary, build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the national judicial system, as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of the penitentiary system;

(ii) To help build the capacities of the national human rights institution coordinating with the Independent Expert on human rights as appropriate;

Urgent temporary measures:

(iii) To urgently and actively adopt, within the limits of its capacities and areas of deployment, at the formal request of the CAR authorities and in areas where national security forces are not present or operational, urgent temporary measures on an exceptional basis and without creating a precedent and without prejudice to the agreed principles of peacekeeping operations, which are limited in scope, time bound and consistent with the objectives set out in paragraphs 42 and 43 (e), to arrest and detain in order to maintain basic law and order and fight impunity;

(iv) To pay particular attention, in implementing the urgent temporary measures in the conditions stated above, to those engaging in or providing support for acts that undermine the peace, stability or security of the CAR, including acts that threaten or impede the political process, or the stabilization and reconciliation process, or that fuel violence;

Special Criminal Court:

(v) To provide technical assistance to the CAR authorities to identify, investigate and prosecute those responsible for crimes involving violations of international humanitarian law and of violations and abuses of human rights committed throughout the CAR so that they can be brought to justice, and to help prevent such violations and abuses;

(vi) To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to the justice and correctional institutions to reinstate the criminal justice system, within the framework of the United Nations global focal point on rule of law, in a manner that emphasizes civilian oversight, impartiality and the protection of human rights;

(vii) To provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in partnership with other international partners, to support the operationalization of the Special Criminal Court consistent with CAR laws and jurisdiction and in line with the CAR's international humanitarian law and international human rights law obligations, with the aim of supporting the extension of State authority;

(viii) To provide technical assistance, in partnership with other international partners, and capacity building for the CAR Authorities, in order to facilitate the functioning of the Special Criminal Court, in particular in the areas of investigations, arrests, detention, criminal and forensic analysis, evidence collection and storage, recruitment and selection of personnel, court management, prosecution strategy and case development and the establishment of a legal aid system, as appropriate, as well as, to provide security for magistrates, including at the premises and proceedings of the Special Criminal Court, and take measures for the protection of victims and witnesses, in line with the CAR's international human rights obligations, including with respect to fair trials, and due process;

(ix) To assist in the coordination and mobilization of bilateral and multilateral support to the operationalization and functioning of the Special Criminal Court;

Rule of law:

(x) To provide support and to coordinate international assistance to build the capacities, and enhance the effectiveness of the criminal justice system as well as the effectiveness and the accountability of police and penitentiary system;

(xi) Without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the CAR Authorities, to support the restoration and maintenance of public safety and the rule of law, including through apprehending and handing over to the CAR Authorities, consistent with international law, those in the country responsible for crimes involving serious human rights violations and abuses and serious violations of international humanitarian law, including sexual violence in conflict, so that they can be brought to justice, and through cooperation with States of the region, as well as the ICC in cases of crimes falling within its jurisdiction;

(f) Illicit exploitation and trafficking of natural resources

To continue to support the CAR Authorities to develop and finalize a nationally owned strategy to tackle the illicit exploitation and trafficking networks of natural resources which continue to fund and supply armed groups in the CAR taking into account, where appropriate, the reports of the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013) and the decisions of the Kimberley Process (KP), with the aim of extending the State authority over the entire territory and its resources;

44. Further authorises MINUSCA to carry out the following additional tasks:

(a) To coordinate international assistance as appropriate;

(b) To assist the Committee established pursuant to paragraph 57 of resolution 2127 (2013) and the Panel of Experts established by the same resolution, including by passing information relevant to the implementation of the mandate of the Committee and Panel of Experts;

(c) To monitor the implementation of the measures renewed and modified by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017), in cooperation with the Panel of Experts established pursuant to resolution 2127 (2013), including by inspecting, as it deems necessary and when appropriate without notice, all arms and related materiel regardless of location, and advise the Authorities on efforts to keep armed groups from exploiting natural resources;

(d) To seize and collect arms and any related materiel the transfer of which to the CAR violates the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017) and to record and dispose of such arms and related materiel as appropriate;

(e) To provide transport for relevant State authorities in carrying out inspections and monitoring visits in key mining areas and sites as appropriate and on a case by case basis and when the situation allows, as a means to promote and support the rapid extension of the State authority over the entire territory;

45. Requests the Secretary General to deploy and allocate personnel and expertise within MINUSCA to reflect the priorities identified by paragraph 42 to paragraph 44 of this resolution, and to continuously adjust this deployment according to the progresses made in the implementation of this mandate;

46. Encourages MINUSCA to develop measurable targets by which to assess progress against the pursuit of the strategic objective defined in paragraph 39 of this resolution;

47. Requests MINUSCA to continue using relevant and tailored communication tools, in particular radio, to help the local population better understand the mandate of the mission, its activities, and to build trust with the CAR citizens, parties to the conflict, regional and other international actors and partners on the ground as part of an effective political strategy;

48. Requests MINUSCA to consider the environmental impacts of its operations when fulfilling its mandated tasks and, in this context, to manage them as appropriate and in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions and United Nations rules and regulations;

49. Calls on the CAR, its neighbouring States and other member States of the ICGLR to cooperate at the regional level to investigate and combat regional criminal networks and armed groups involved in the illegal exploitation and smuggling of natural resources including gold, diamonds and wildlife poaching and trafficking;

50. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account child protection as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR authorities in ensuring that the protection of children's rights is taken into account, inter alia, in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes and in security sector reform in order to end and prevent violations and abuses against children;

51. Requests MINUSCA to take fully into account gender mainstreaming as a cross cutting issue throughout its mandate and to assist the CAR Authorities in ensuring the full and effective participation, involvement and representation of women in all spheres and at all levels, including in stabilization activities, transitional justice, the work of the SCC and of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, security sector reform, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation processes, as well as in the national political dialogue and electoral processes, through, inter alia, the provision of gender advisers, further requests enhanced reporting by MINUSCA to the Council on this issue, and encourages the UN Secretariat, in collaboration with Member States, to engage greater numbers of women in the military, police and civilian components of the mission with full respect for the principle of equitable geographical distribution, in conformity with article 101, paragraph 3, of the United Nations Charter;

52. Recalls its Presidential Statement S/PRST/2015/22 and its resolution 2272 (2016) and requests the Secretary-General to take all necessary measures to ensure full compliance of MINUSCA with the United Nations zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse and to ensure that all personnel of the mission are vetted for history of sexual misconduct in the service with the United Nations and to keep the Council informed through his reports to the Council about the Mission's progress in this regard, including by reporting on the start, agreed deadlines and outcomes of 2272 reviews, and urges troop- and police-contributing countries to take appropriate preventative action including predeployment awareness training, and to ensure full accountability in cases of such conduct involving their personnel;

53. Requests MINUSCA to ensure that any support provided to non United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the human rights due diligence policy, and requests the Secretary-General to include information on any such support in his reports to the Council;

54. Emphasizes the need for MINUSCA and EUTM RCA, while carrying out their mandate, to act in full respect of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of the CAR and in full compliance with applicable international humanitarian law, human rights law and refugee law and recalls the importance of training in this regard;

Weapon and ammunition management

55. Requests MINUSCA to actively seize, confiscate and destroy, as appropriate, the weapons and ammunitions of armed elements, including all militias and other non-State armed groups, who refuse or fail to lay down their arms, and when they present an imminent threat to civilians or the stability of the state;

56. Requests MINUSCA to provide technical assistance to the CAR Authorities in the operationalization of the national commission for Small Arms and Light Weapons to address civilian disarmament and the fight against the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons;

57. Requests MINUSCA to destroy, as appropriate, the weapons and ammunitions of disarmed combatants in keeping with its effort to seize and collect arms and related materiel the supply, sale or transfer of which violate the measures imposed by paragraph 1 of resolution 2339 (2017);

58. Calls upon the CAR Authorities and international partners and relevant United Nations entities, in coordination with MINUSCA and United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), to address the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation, and misuse of small arms and light weapons in the CAR, and to ensure the safe and effective management, storage and security of stockpiles of small arms and light weapons, and the collection and/or destruction of surplus, seized, unmarked, or illicitly held weapons and ammunition, and further stresses the importance of incorporating such elements into security sector reform and disarmament, demobilization, reintegration and repatriation programmes;

59. Encourages the CAR Authorities to implement the Central African Convention for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition, Parts and Components that can be used for their Manufacture, Repair or Assembly signed at Kinshasa on 30 April 2010;

MINUSCA Freedom of movement

60. Urges all parties in the CAR to cooperate fully with the deployment and activities of MINUSCA, in particular by ensuring its safety, security and freedom of movement with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of the CAR to enable MINUSCA to carry out fully its mandate in a complex environment including by helping to ensure the full and effective implementation of, and compliance with, the host country agreement by the CAR authorities;

61. Calls upon Member States, especially those in the region, to ensure the free, unhindered and expeditious movement to and from the CAR of all personnel, as well as equipment, provisions, supplies and other goods, including vehicles and spare parts, which are for the exclusive and official use of MINUSCA;

Humanitarian access

62. Demands that all parties allow and facilitate the full, safe, immediate and unhindered access for the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in particular to internally displaced persons, throughout the territory of the CAR, in accordance with the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance and relevant provisions of international law;

63. Further demands that all parties ensure respect and protection of all medical personnel and humanitarian personnel exclusively engaged in medical duties, their means of transport and equipment, as well as hospitals and other medical facilities;

Humanitarian appeal

64. Calls on Member States and international and regional organizations to respond swiftly to the revised humanitarian appeal through increased contributions and to ensure that all pledges are honoured in full and in a timely manner;

Support to MINUSCA

65. Authorises French armed forces, within the provisions of their existing bilateral agreement with the CAR and the limits of their capacities and areas of deployment, at the request of the Secretary General, to use all the means to provide operational support to elements of MINUSCA when under serious threat, from the date of adoption of this resolution, and requests France to ensure reporting to the Council on the implementation of this mandate and to coordinate its reporting with that of the Secretary General referred to in paragraph 67 of this resolution;

Review and Reporting

66. Requests the Secretary General to review on a regular basis the conditions required for the transition, drawdown and withdrawal of the United Nations operation, in a manner which does not prejudice overall efforts to support long term objectives for peace and stability, and looks forward to receiving this information as part of his regular reporting to the Security Council;

67. Requests the Secretary General to keep the Council regularly informed of the situation in the CAR and the implementation of the mandate of MINUSCA, to report to the Council, on 15 February 2018, and then every four months from that date, and to include in his reports to the Council updates on and recommendations related to the dynamic implementation of MINUSCA's mandated tasks, including by providing appropriate financial information, information on the security situation, the priority political elements as defined above on political progress, progress on mechanisms and capacity to advance governance and fiscal management, relevant information on the progress, promotion and protection of human rights and international humanitarian law, a review of the troop and police levels, force and police generation and deployment of all MINUSCA's constituent elements, information on the progress in the implementation of the measures taken to improve MINUSCA's performance, including measures to ensure force effectiveness as outlined in paragraphs 33 to 37 and 45, as well as on the outcomes of the performance review of troop- and police-contributing countries that will be conducted by MINUSCA no later than the end of the first quarter of 2018;

68. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.

Source: United Nations Radio