December 2015

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The United Nations tribunal set up 21 years ago to judge those guilty for the genocide in Rwanda of more than 800,000 people – overwhelmingly Tutsi, and also moderate Hutu, Twa and others – formally closed today after delivering 45 judgments as part of the Organization’s efforts to stamp out impunity for crimes against humanity.

The Security Council, which set up the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) on 8 November 1994 – the first time in history that an international tribunal delivered verdicts against those guilty of committing genocide – marked its closure with a press statement reaffirming its “strong commitment to justice and the fight against impunity.”

During its two decades of work in Arusha, Tanzania, the ICTR sentenced 61 people to terms of up to life imprisonment for their roles in the massacres which took place over the course of three months of bloodletting by Hutu extremists. Fourteen accused were acquitted and 10 others referred to national courts.

The indicted included high-ranking military and government officials, politicians, businessmen, as well as religious, militia and media leaders, and the court noted that “during the 100 bloody days… unimaginable violence overtook the country… a rate of killing four times greater than at the height of the Nazi Holocaust.”

With its sister tribunals like the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the ICTR played a pioneering role in setting up a credible international criminal justice system, producing a substantial body of jurisprudence on genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and individual and superior responsibility.

The ICTR was the first international tribunal to define rape in international criminal law and to recognize rape as a means of perpetrating genocide. In another landmark, it became the first international tribunal to hold members of the media responsible for broadcasts intended to inflame the public to commit acts of genocide.

Today’s press statement by the Council acknowledged “the substantial contribution of the ICTR to the process of national reconciliation and the restoration of peace and security, and to the fight against impunity and the development of international criminal justice, especially in relation to the crime of genocide.”

It stressed that the establishment of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals in 2010 is essential to ensure that the ICTR’s closure does not leave the door open to impunity for the remaining fugitives, and called on all States to cooperate with the Mechanism and the Rwandan Government to arrest and prosecute the eight remaining ICTR-indicted fugitives.

During its two decades, the ICTR held 5,800 days of proceedings, indicted 93 people, issued 55 first-instance and 45 appeal judgements, and heard the “powerful accounts of more than 3,000 witnesses who bravely recounted some of the most traumatic events imaginable during ICTR trials,” ICTR President Judge Vagn Joensen told the Council earlier this month.

It became the first international tribunal to issue a judgement against a Head of Government since the Nuremburg and Tokyo Tribunals just after the Second World War, when it condemned former Interim Government Prime Minister Jean Kambanda to life imprisonment in 1998.

Source: United Nations

TORONTO, ONTARIO and ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA-Bombardier Commercial Aircraft and Addis Ababa-based Ethiopian Airlines Enterprise (Ethiopian Airlines) announced today that they have signed a firm purchase agreement for two additional Q400 turboprop airliners that will bring Ethiopian Airlines’ Q400 aircraft fleet to a total of 19 aircraft, the largest total fleet in Africa.

Based on the list price of the Q400 aircraft, the transaction is valued at approximately $63 million US.

“We are continuously working to have the right fleet with agility, optimal range, load and passenger comfort which is critical for us to keep our leadership position in the market. The Q400 aircraft continues to be an integral part of our expansion strategy in Africa. Through our strategic partnerships with ASKY Airlines in Togo and Malawian Airlines in Malawi, the Q400 airliner has played a vital role in availing convenient connections, as well as increasing frequencies to support air travel growth in Africa and successfully create a missing link,” said Tewolde Gebremariam, Group Chief Executive Officer, Ethiopian Airlines. “The Q400 aircraft is also our core fleet to our domestic and regional destinations, thereby ensuring excellent passenger experience, operational flexibility and economics.

“We continue to work with Bombardier to support and maintain the aircraft through our approved Q400 Authorized Service Facility and our Q400 aircraft simulator,” added Mr. Gebremariam.

“The Q400 turboprop continues to make impressive headway in Africa and has proven its ruggedness and reliability in challenging operational environments where its hot and high capability, jet-like speed and high rate of climb are significant assets,” said Fred Cromer, President, Bombardier Commercial Aircraft. “Some 69 Q400 aircraft are now in service with more than 20 operators on the continent, and we are delighted with Ethiopian Airlines’ continuing growth and impressive use of the aircraft to satisfy a wide variety of market requirements.”

“Our commitment to help Africa continue to expand its regional airline network with modern, economical, fuel-efficient and environmentally sensitive aircraft remains a very high priority at Bombardier,” said John Kassis, Vice President, Sales, Africa and the Middle East, Bombardier Commercial Aircraft. “Our collaboration with operators in Africa encompasses the Dash 8 / Q Series turboprops and the pioneering CRJ Series family of regional jets. Now, we are witnessing the unprecedented growth in Africa being undertaken by Ethiopian Airlines, ASKY and Malawian and the Q400 turboprop airliner continues to be a key contributor to this strategy.”

In 2013, Ethiopian Airlines joined Bombardier’s global network of Authorized Service Facilities (ASFs) for commercial aircraft and performs line and heavy maintenance on Q400 aircraft at its facilities at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa. The ASF works in close collaboration with Bombardier’s maintenance network of wholly owned service centres and ASFs, as well as with Bombardier’s network of parts hubs and depots, including the Johannesburg Parts Depot. A full-service Bombardier Regional Support Office is also located in Johannesburg.

Ethiopian Airlines has won Airline Reliability Performance Awards from Bombardier for five years in a row.

About Q400 aircraft

Designed as a modern, 21st-century turboprop, the Q400 aircraft is the most recent development in the Q Series family of aircraft. It provides unmatched performance, operational flexibility and passenger comfort. In addition to the standard single-class configuration, Q400 aircraft are available with an optional dual-class interior for enhanced passenger comfort; in an optional extra-capacity configuration with up to 86 seats for high-density markets; and in a combi configuration.

Thanks to its combination of turboprop attributes, jet-like features, industry-leading passenger experience and environmental footprint, the Q400 aircraft is exceptionally versatile and can be adapted to a variety of business models. By offering a 30 per cent reduction in fuel burn over the jets it often replaces, the Q400 aircraft radically reduces carbon emissions and increases cost efficiency. Its high-speed cruise — 160 km/h faster than conventional turboprops — places the aircraft’s flight time within minutes of jet schedules, at the same seat cost as larger single-aisle jets. Its large propellers operate at a lower RPM, generating more power with less noise and making it a friendly option for city centres.

The Q400 aircraft family includes over 60 owners and operators in almost 40 countries worldwide and the worldwide fleet has logged more than 6 million flight hours. The aircraft has transported more than 370 million passengers worldwide. Long recognized as a high-value asset by operators, the Q400 aircraft is now also attracting growing interest from the leasing community.

Including Ethiopian Airlines’ purchase agreement, Bombardier has recorded firm orders for a total of 547 Q400 aircraft.

About Ethiopian

Ethiopian Airlines (Ethiopian) is the fastest growing airline in Africa. In its close to seven decades of operations, Ethiopian has become one of the continent’s leading carriers, unrivalled in efficiency and operational success.

Ethiopian commands the lion share of the pan-African passenger and cargo network, operating the youngest and most modern fleet to more than 90 international destinations across five continents. Ethiopian’s fleet includes ultra-modern and environmentally friendly aircraft such as the Boeing 787, Boeing 777-300ER, Boeing 777-200LR, Boeing 777-200 Freighter and dual-class Bombardier Q400 turboprop. The average age of the aircraft in the fleet is five years. Ethiopian is the first airline in Africa to own and operate these aircraft.

Ethiopian is currently implementing a 15-year strategic plan called Vision 2025 that will see it become the leading aviation group in Africa with seven business centers: Ethiopian Domestic and Regional Airline; Ethiopian International Passenger Airline; Ethiopian Cargo; Ethiopian MRO; Ethiopian Aviation Academy; Ethiopian In-flight Catering Services; and Ethiopian Ground Service. Ethiopian is a multi-award winning airline registering an average growth of 25 per cent in the past seven years.

For more information, visit, and

About Bombardier

Bombardier is the world’s leading manufacturer of both planes and trains. Looking far ahead while delivering today, Bombardier is evolving mobility worldwide by answering the call for more efficient, sustainable and enjoyable transportation everywhere. Our vehicles, services and, most of all, our employees are what make us a global leader in transportation.

Bombardier is headquartered in Montréal, Canada. Our shares are traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange (BBD) and we are listed on the Dow Jones Sustainability North America Index. In the fiscal year ended December 31, 2014, we posted revenues of $20.1 billion. News and information are available at or follow us on Twitter @Bombardier.

Notes to Editors

Images of Ethiopian Airlines Q400 aircraft are posted with this press release at .

For more information on the Q400 aircraft, please visit

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Bombardier, CRJ, Dash 8, Q400, Q Series and The Evolution of Mobility are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries.

Contact Information

Marianella de la Barrera

Bombardier Commercial Aircraft


Manager, Corporate Communcations

Ethiopian Airlines

(251-1) 517-89-07/656/165/913/529

Source: Bombardier Aerospace

Dec 24, Colombo: The Incumbent Chairman of Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) Attorney-at-Law and Legal Educationist, Mr. Nanda Muruttettuwegama assumed duties as the new Chairman of the Lankapuvath Ltd, the National News Agency of Sri Lanka on Wednesday (23). Expressing his views at the occasion, Mr. Muruttettuwegama stressed that he will do his utmost best to restore the National News

An NNN-GNA Feature by Alexis Bonte & Samuel Bruce Nyarko

ACCRA, The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is working towards strengthening the resilience of people and their livelihoods by increasing their ability to prevent and mitigate disasters and crises.

Disasters and crises in agriculture are threatening the lives and incomes of an estimated 700 million smallholder farmers who depend mainly on their own production and natural resources.

The FAO, together with its partners, have been pioneering a rural community-based approach, the “Caisses de Re´silience” (CdR), which focuses on engaging and empowering rural smallholders to leverage their existing capacities.

The innovative element of CdR is an integrated community-centred approach, linking social, technical and financial dimensions in a mutually reinforcing way. The use of sustainable agricultural practices leads to improved productivity, thereby contributing to increased incomes and food or seed reserves.

This improves the capacity of the group members to mobilize their contributions to increase the capital of their group savings and loans (S&L) systems, and also increase the capital of the groups to offer more opportunities to both men and women for diversifying their investments and increasing savings, which is key for resilience building.

Some groups imposed themselves the need to apply good practices in agriculture and nutrition and gain access to the loans, in order to create a virtuous circle for longer term impact even beyond the project duration.

Organizing smallholder farmers into groups creates a dynamic of inclusion, allows trust-building and fosters commitment and dialogue among members facing similar challenges, opportunities and useful experiences.

The project has a facility for each group to prioritize key social aspects they would like to reinforce depending on the context they are living in.

In Sahelian communities, nutrition is considered as one of the most important social aspect that can be addressed through the group dynamics for nutrition surveillance.

The groups may also play a critical role in social integration of most vulnerable individuals facilitating access to basic social services and opportunities, such as the S&L scheme.

In certain circumstances like after the Ebola crisis, or with displaced communities resettling, the project will also consider a conditional cash transfer mechanism which will both facilitate the construction of social or productive infrastructure and generate incomes for these communities to cover basic needs.

The CdR approach has been implemented in Uganda and Honduras with over 4,000 groups in each country; and outcomes have demonstrated strengthened resilience of poor rural households with results including increased sustainable production, diversification of livelihoods, reduced malnutrition and women’s empowerment.

Several FAO country offices across the Sahel and elsewhere are currently implementing or exploring ways to integrate CdR in their ongoing portfolio of programmes.

In the Sahel region, collaboration with United Nations and non-governmental organization (NGO) partners will facilitate the implementation of such an integrated approach whereby one agency is supporting nutrition training, the other one for food and agriculture production to be linked with the reinforcement of the ‘tontines’ which is also a savings and loans mechanism.

One can imagine that cash for work approach is used for restoration in the great green wall region and the cash earned is used for income generating activities through the savings and loans systems for longer term local economy growth.

These activities form an excellent basis for the CdR approach when complemented with social interventions on nutrition sensitive agriculture and social protection to include the very poor.

The Central African Republic (CAR) has mobilized funding for similar activities, targeting specifically women’s groups, focusing on contractual seed production activities to boost the initial capital of the S&L and to restore their livelihoods.

In Liberia, because of the quarantine measure, women groups have seen their S&L schemes depleted.

The FAO decided to contribute to the Ebola awareness campaign by contracting these women groups for sensitizing neighbouring communities and the women used the money earned to recapitalize their S&L.

This approach calls for and facilitates partnerships with governments and donors initiatives like the Great Green Wall or the Alliance Globale for the Resilience Initiative (AGIR), and also with non-governmental organization for advocacy and field implementation.

While CdR remains highly flexible and adaptable to multiple contexts, it requires a certain awareness and commitment of FAO management and staff to the implementation of such an integrated approach.

Country offices can establish partnerships with institutions that have the complementary expertise to ensure that at least two or three dimensions can be well articulated.

(Eds note: Alexis Bonte is the Regional Emergency and Rehabilitation Co-coordinator at the Africa Regional Office of the FAO).

Source: GNA